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Reports of MOEJ/GEC JCM Feasibility Study: FY2013

Title of Study JCM Feasibility Study
Promotion of public transportation usage through Park-and-Drive and Eco Point systems in collaboration with private commercial facilities
FYFY 2013
Main Implementing EntityNikken Sekkei Research Institute
Study PartnersProfessor Takayuki Morikawa, Nagoya University; Aeon Mall (Vietnam); Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation
Location of Project/ActivityHo Chi Minh, Vietnam
Category of Project/ActivityTransportation
Study Report

Note: JCM proposed methodology, and calculation sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM.
Description of Project/ActivityFor a large-scale commercial facility (Aeon Store #1) which opened in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam in January 2014, to reduce GHG emission amounts from commuting transportation by increasing the shift of commuting transportation method from motorcycles or cars to buses through the introduction of methods which have been effective in Japan: ① Model for promotion of Park-and-Bus-Ride (hereafter referred to as "P&BR") system utilizing parking lots of suburban large-scale commercial facilities, and ② Public transportation Eco Point system.
Specifically, consumers who purchase prepaid shopping tickets at Aeon will be able to utilize the P&BR system using the store's parking lot. Additionally, in order to induce the shift to buses, Transportation Eco Points will also be introduced. This proposed project will be promoted as an economic inducement method led by the private sector as a collaboration between existing transportation infrastructures and a commercial facility, and can be expected to reduce CO2 emissions with a small investment cost. Furthermore, the hurdles for implementation are also low, and rapid commercialization can be expected.
JCM MethodologyEligibility Criteria
  1. Existence of private commercial facility in suburbs for P&BR use.
  2. Existence of bus routes conducive to P&BR which can be transferred to from the parking lot.
  3. Completion of introduction of IC card as a bus fare payment method.
  4. Mandatory submission of P&BR usage application form by users.
  5. Development of a system for automatically calculating GHG reduction amounts.
Default ValuesThe CO2 emission amounts for transportation modes before and after implementation of this project are required, and are set as shown in the table below.

Transportation mode
Per-unit CO2 emission amount
[tCO2/person per km]
Type of fuel
Electric bicycle
Diesel fuel

Source: Per-unit amounts for other than CNG buses are from the JCM/BOCM Offset Joint Crediting Mechanism Feasibility Study "Promotion of Modal Shift from Roadway Transportation to Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) (Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc.)"Per-unit amount for CNG buses are calculated from Ho Chi Minh survey results.

For other values, the following default values are used.
・For the CO2 emission amounts for each transportation mode, performance improvements are assumed to provide fuel consumption improvements of 1.2% annually.
・Transportation mode road distances necessary for calculating CO2 emission amounts are set at 1.25 times the spatial distance (straight-line distance between departure and arrival points).
Calculation of Reference Emissions・In order to maintain consistency with other JCM models, reference emissions are based on the per-unit CO2 emission amounts for each transportation mode calculated in the JCM/BOCM feasibility study on offset credit system between two countries "Promotion of Modal Shift from Roadway Transportation to Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) (Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc.)" conducted in Vietnam in 2012. In addition, the per-unit CO2 emission amounts for CNG buses are set based on the results of the Bus Performance Evaluation Study conducted by the Ho Chi Minh Department of Transportation (DOT) in 2013.
・The ratio between road distance and spatial distance is set based on local surveys.
・The fuel consumption improvement ratio is set based on the passenger car fuel consumption improvement estimates (2010 to 2020) for non-OECD member countries in the report "Cost-effectiveness analysis of CO2 Reduction in Automobile Sector (2009)" published by The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan.
Monitoring MethodThe monitoring items, methods, frequency, and the agency performing monitoring are as shown
    Monitoring item
    Monitoring method
    Residence address; Destination addressP&BR use application form
    Once per year
    Store operators
    Reference transportation methodP&BR use application form
    Once per year
    Store operators
    Carpooling informationP&BR use application form
    Once per year
    Store operators
    Record of passing through parking lot gateParking lot management system
    Each time
    Store operators
    Bus usage frequency; Distance between getting on and offIC card payment system
    Each time
    Bus travel route and bus typeField study
    After each change
    Bus per-unit CO2 emissionsVehicle maintenance check
    Once per year
GHG Emission ReductionsThe reference emission amounts are the base CO2 emission amounts for the current commuting transportation method and the project emission amounts are the CO2 emission amounts when P&BR is used as described. In this study, an estimation model was developed based on questionnaire surveys and person trip surveys in Ho Chi Minh, and the above values were calculated.
[Estimation conditions] Prepaid shopping tickets: 30,000 VND; Eco-Point rate reduction: 10,000 VND reduction for riding bus 20 times

Reference emission amounts
Project emission amounts
GHG reduction amount
GHG reduction ratio
Environmental ImpactsSince for this project promotion of public transportation usage is being promoted by economic inducements, not transportation infrastructure construction/maintenance, etc., it is considered that there would be no environmental impacts.
Project PlanDetailed design of the system and card will be performed in 2015, and validation tests will be performed in 2016 to analyze the effects. Based on these, the shift to full-scale operation will be performed.
Promotion of Japanese Technologies
  • The FeLica system used in Japan will be promoted as the IC card system for bus fare payment.
  • Collaboration with the bus business development by Japanese companies in Binh Duong Province will lead to early exhibition of the results of these measures and increase the attractiveness of bus operation.
  • By using the Japanese commercial facilities that are advancing into Ho Chi Minh as a stage, it will increase the attractiveness of Japanese commercial facilities and function as PR toward citizens.
Sustainable Development in Host CountryIn this country which is centered on motorcycles and cars, it is expected that promotion of bus usage will provide improvements in the environment and amelioration of economic losses due to traffic congestion. Further, by also introducing the system into the MRT to be constructed in the future, it can also contribute to promoting MRT usage. In addition, through this project, it becomes possible to purchase daily necessities at the commercial facilities during P&BR in the midst of commuting, and it has been suggested in domestic research that this type of lifestyle can also contribute to improving the quality of daily life.

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