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Reports of MOEJ/GEC JCM Feasibility Study: FY2013

Title of Study JCM Feasibility Study
Geothermal Binary Power Generation
FYFY 2013
Main Implementing EntityNippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Study PartnersHen Linn San Co., Ltd. (HLS)
Location of Project/ActivityMyanmar/Tachileik
Category of Project/ActivityRenewable Energy
Study Report

Note: JCM proposed methodology, and calculation sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM.
Description of Project/ActivityMyanmar is endowed with numerous geothermal resources, and many of the geothermal potential sites are distributed in the northeast region bordered on the south by Thailand. These huge geothermal resources still remain undeveloped.
Tachileik Township and surrounding area of Shan State in northeast region of Myanmar is experiencing rapid development due to the recent opening policy of Myanmar. However, this area has severe power shortage, and frequent blackouts harm economic activities. Since all electricity consumed in this area is imported from Thailand, Myanmar side would like to have its own stable energy sources.
Hence, this project aims to develop a geothermal binary power plant, expecting power generation of around 200 kW, to supply electricity to Tachileik Township. This project will pioneer power generation in Myanmar and contribute to poverty reduction of this area.
JCM MethodologyEligibility CriteriaFour eligibility criteria of JCM (Joint Crediting Mechanism) methodology are as follows:
  • Criteria 1: Geothermal binary power plants
  • Criteria 2: Contracting with analysis agency for periodic monitoring of CO2 and CH4 concentration in steam produced by the geothermal plant., if production wells are applied.
  • Criteria 3: Conducting annual monitoring of refilled amount of secondary medium, when the secondary medium is GHG listed in IPPC Assessment Report.
  • Criteria 4: Having at least one year warranty offered by a manufacturer of a product or engineering company, and conducting annual maintenance of the power plant and incidental facilities.
Default ValuesIn this methodology, default values are set as follows:
    a) Grid emission factor : 0.371 [tCO2/MWh]
    b) Emission factor for diesel generation (mid size) : 0.56 [kgCO2/MWh]
    c) Emission factor for diesel generation (mid size) : 0.76 [kgCO2/MWh]
    d) GWP of secondary medium (HFC245fa) : 1,030 [tCO2e/tHFC-245fa]
Calculation of Reference EmissionsIn this methodology, the following three (3) scenarios are proposed for calculating reference emissions:
  • [Scenario 1] The Myanmar grid is extended, and the electricity is provided through the grid to the project area.
  • [Scenario 2] Middle-size diesel generator is introduced, and the electricity is provided as off-grid power source.
  • [Scenario 3] Small-size diesel generator is introduced, and the electricity is provided to each house directly.
Monitoring Method
  • Monitoring for reference emissions :
    Power generation of binary power plant shall be monitored in all scenarios.
  • Monitoring for project emissions:
    Monitoring items: (i) CO2 & CH4 concentrations in steam, (ii) steam volume and (iii) filling volume of secondary medium.
GHG Emission ReductionsIn reference scenario 1, GHG emission reduction (468 [tCO2/y]) is calculated with power generation (1,261 [MWh/y]) and grid emission factor (0.371 [tCO2/MWh]).
Environmental ImpactsThis Project can contribute to GHG reduction by offset with diesel power generation. Since produced steam and hot water for geothermal binary power generation is principally returned through injection wells, geothermal binary power generation is a closed system, and air/water pollution is negligible.
In general, produced noise and heat by power generation and changes in scenic view are considerable negative impacts of geothermal power generation. However, since the project site is located about 2 km from the nearest village, noise for the residents will be negligible. The heat is available for sauna or mill drying facilities. Although some changes of scenic view are unavoidable, negative impact such as cutting trees etc. can be minimized by the layout of the plant design.
Project PlanThe Project aims to develop a 200 kW binary power plant in the rural area approximately 8.2 km northwest of Tachileik Township. The construction and operation of the power plant is expected to start in 2015 and 2017, respectively. Construction cost is estimated at around 535 million JPY. This project will pioneer geothermal power generation in Myanmar.
Promotion of Japanese TechnologiesGeothermal binary technology has already been developed, and there will be only small differences in generation performance from Japanese geothermal power plants. Thus, Japanese manufacturers can provide an appropriate follow-up system including maintenance services and technology transfer of operation and maintenance to the owner. Japanese manufacturers are much superior to other manufacturers in post-warranty O&M performance.
Sustainable Development in Host CountryMyanmar government is promoting the development of renewable energy to meet rapidly growing power demand. East Shan state including Tachileik township has huge potential of geothermal resources. The success of this project will accelerate domestic power sustainability, develop geothermal power in the surrounding area of Tachileik, and will contribute to GHG reduction by replacing diesel power generation.

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