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Reports of MOEJ/GEC JCM Feasibility Study: FY2013

Title of Study MOEJ/GEC JCM Feasibility Study
Anaerobic Treatment Implementation at Wastewater Treatment Systems in Natural Rubber Production Lines
FYFY 2013
Main Implementing EntityNihon Suido Consultants Co., Ltd.
Study PartnersKurita Water Industries Ltd., Tepia Corporation Japan, and PT. Bridgestone Sumatra Rubber Estate (PT. BSRE)
Location of Project/ActivityIndonesia
Category of Project/ActivityWaste management
Study Report

Note: JCM proposed methodology, and calculation sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM.
Description of Project/ActivityA large volume of water is used at natural rubber production factories in North Sumatra province during its production process. The low concentration organic wastewater generated as a result is treated to meet the wastewater standard by activated sludge process, an aerobic treatment, which requires substantial electricity for aeration.
This project aims to reduce GHG emissions by installing anaerobic treatment as a pretreatment to reduce energy consumption at blower in activated sludge process and utilize methane gas collected during anaerobic treatment process to generate electricity and/or heat.
JCM MethodologyEligibility Criteria
  • Criterion 1: To install anaerobic treatment before the existing activated sludge process treatment. The project has to recover/utilize methane gas from biomass in wastewater from natural rubber production. Its wastewater quality CODcr does not exceed 2,000mg/L.
  • Criterion 2: Target quality of treated wastewater is planned to be achieved before implementation of anaerobic wastewater treatment system, and the same target is applied after implementation of anaerobic wastewater treatment system.
  • Criterion 3: Soluble CODcr removal ratio is more than 80% in the installed anaerobic treatment process and it is stated in the catalog or technical data of implementing anaerobic treatment technology.
  • Criterion 4: To utilize all methane gas to generate electricity and/or heat and consume within the factory or supply to the grid of electoricity.
  • Criterion 5: Existing activated sludge treatment system can control wastewater treatment energy depending on the change of inflow CODcr load.
Default ValuesEmission factor of fossil fuel (diesel oil) and operational safety factor of existing activated sludge treatment system are set as defaults. The former is a default value defined by IPCC; the latter is the result value of BSRE.
Calculation of Reference EmissionsThe following two methods are defined. Option-A is for a case where energy consumption data of the last four years are available, and Option-B is for the rest of the cases.
    • Option-A: Energy consumption of activated sludge treatment system is estimated from CODcr removal load necessary in the wastewater treatment system using the estimation formula created from the result data of the previous year and multiplied by the emission factor.
    • Option-B: Energy consumption is estimated by subtracting possible energy reduction calculated using the actual treatment conditions (wastewater quantity and quality) and operational safety factor of the wastewater treatment system from the designed energy consumption of activated sludge treatment system to estimate energy consumption and multiplied by the emission factor.
Monitoring Method
    Items to be monitored are wastewater quantity, wastewater quality, energy consumption, and heat recovery from cogeneration system (quantity and temperature of hot water). Currently, wastewater quantity and quality as well as energy consumption are measured and recorded at least once a day. Water quality is analyzed at a laboratory within BSRE by experts based on Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Items such as heat recovery quantity need to be measured after implementation of anaerobic wastewater treatment system, and measurement methods and precision control need to be identified.
GHG Emission ReductionsThe following shows the GHG emissions and GHG emission reductions calculated based on the result values of wastewater quantity and quality of 2012 using the methodology discussed:
  • [Reference emissions] Option-A: 1,436tCO2/year, Option-B: 1,278tCO2/year.
    Actual emissions: 11% reduction in case of Option-A and 24% reduction in case of Option-B compare to 1,693 tCO2/year. Emissions are evaluated conservatively.
  • [Project emissions] 595 tCO2/year
  • [GHG reductions] Option-A: 842tCO2/year, Option-B: 683tCO2/year
Energy required for wastewater treatment is expected to be almost the same even after implementation of anaerobic treatment, but by utilizing methane gas to generate electricity/heat, GHG of 700-850 tCO2/year are expected to be reduced.
Environmental ImpactsAny projects that have the potential to affect the environment significantly need to conduct environmental impact assessment. This project, however, is merely to add anaerobic treatment system to the existing wastewater treatment system, and is not considered as the subject of environmental impact assessment. The biogas power generation plant planned to be installed in the facility may be considered as the subject of environmental assessment if the capacity of the plant is more than 10MW. The capacity of power plant in this project is less than 0.1MW, and therefore this project does not need to conduct environmental impact assessment.
In terms of implementation of technology, wastewater treatment technology itself prevents water pollution and no effect is expected on water environment. By installing desulfurizing equipment and preventing leakage of methane gas collected during anaerobic treatment process, and by implementing environmental measures such as choosing low noise type equipment to reduce noise from a blower or generator, it is possible to reduce the environmental impact as much as possible.
Project PlanThe payback periods of the two cases are 6.2 and 4.9 years respectively. Use of cogeneration system is determined by taking into account that the review of drying process is in progress.
Details of the facility scale are determined based on the result of the methane gas continuous test which is performed in parallel with this study. The detailed design and construction will take about one year after the contract of subsidized project is made, and the project will start in August 2015 and completed at the end of 2020, depending on the result of the gas generation test to be performed later on.
Promotion of Japanese TechnologiesThis project will adopt Biosaver TK, anaerobic treatment system applicable to low concentration organic wastewater developed by a Japanese company. During the indoor batch experiment, more than 80% of soluble organic matters are decomposed, a proof that it has sufficient performance. When compared with possible competitive technologies such as sedimentation treatment and anaerobic lagoon in terms of GHG emission reductions and costs, Biosaver TK shows larger GHG emission reductions than other two, and by applying JCM subsidy, Biosaver TK's treatment cost per year is less than that of sedimentation treatment and about equal to that of anaerobic lagoon. Therefore, Biosaver TK is proved to be superior in terms of GHG emission reductions and treatment cost.
Sustainable Development in Host CountryThe natural rubber industry is one of 22 major industries with expectations of future economic expansion. Projects such as this which provide support in the field of energy saving and environmental measures are expected to contribute to the economic development of the country. In the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia’s Economic Development, 6 economic corridors are defined as the focus of growth. While increase in inflation rate in Indonesia is a major concern, implementing a project such as this, which expects short payback period, will help support local companies. Moreover, introduction of energy saving technology also promote stable provision of electricity in regions that lack electricity.
This project is to promote treatment of organic wastewater from factories and to provide Japan’s technological support against biological treatment which is difficult to maintain and manage. This project is in line with the Indonesian government’s policies to promote implementation of wastewater treatment technology to improve water pollution in public water area and will contribute significantly to the environmental measures of Indonesia.

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