|Title of Study||JCM Methodology Demonstration Study|
|Promotion of Electric Vehicles Usage|
|Main Implementing Entity||ALMEC Corporation|
|Study Partners||Climate Consulting, LLC, ITS Consultants Co., Ltd., and |
Toyota Tsusho Electronics (Thailand) Co., Ltd.
|Location of Project/Activity||Luang Prabang and Vientiane in Lao PDR|
|Category of Project/Activity||Transport|
Note: JCM proposed methodology, and calculation sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM.
|Description of Project/Activity||JICA and LAO MPWT(Ministry of Public Works and Transportation) conducted "Basic Data Collection Study on Low-Emission Public Transport System in Lao PDR" in 2012 in which the road map of EV introduction in Lao has been proposed. The road map proposed model projects in Luang Prabang and Vientiane Capital as short-term activity for EV promotion. This proposed JCM project is intended to be a model project piloting EV promotion in whole Lao. |
Luang Prabang (Unit)
|Electric Motor Cycle(EMC)|| 30|| 30|| 40||100|
|Electric Motor Cycle(EMC)||30||30||40||100|
|JCM Methodology||Eligibility Criteria||) This methodology is applicable for project activities introducing new electric vehicles that displace the use of fossil fuel vehicles in passenger and freight transportation.|
2) This methodology is applicable for project activities introducing 2-wheels, 3-wheels and/or 4-wheels or more. This methodology is not applicable to electric motor assist cycle (with pedal), hybrid vehicles and plug-in-hybrid vehicles.
Project participants shall demonstrate in Project Design Document that the project and reference vehicles are comparable, using the following means:
(a) Project and reference vehicles belong to the same vehicle category e.g. motorcycle, bus, taxi, truck, tricycle;
(b) Project and reference vehicles categories have comparable passenger/load capacity
3) Project EVs must comply with the following condition ;
a) Vehicle standards and electricity vehicle safety standard in Lao
b) Complete vehicle registration and take out automobile insurance
c) Sign an agreement of maintenance and vehicle disposal with car dealer or EV maintenance operator.
Project participants shall demonstrate in Project Design Document that the project EV comply those conditions described on the above.
4) Project EVs must use electricity only supply from national grid in Lao
|Parameter & Description of data||Source|
|NCVRF,i :Net calorific value of fossil fuel consumed by reference vehicle (MJ/l)||Country or neighboring countries specific data or IPCC default value. e.g. 31.48 MJ/liter (Thailand data, Ministry of Thailand)|
|EFRF,i :Emission factor of fossil fuel consumed by reference vehicle category i (tCO2/MJ)||Country specific data or IPCC default value|
e.g. 69,300 kgCO2/TJ (IPCC 2006)
|SFCi :Specific fuel consumption of reference vehicle category i (l/km)||Determine in order of three options as follows: |
Op.1: Conservative default values based on field measurements
Op.2: Conservative default values based on existing data
Op.3: Catalogue values provided by mfr.
|Calculation of Reference Emissions|
REy Total reference emissions in year y (tCO2/year)
SFCi Specific fuel consumption of reference vehicle category i (l/km)
NCVRF,i Net calorific value of fossil fuel consumed by reference vehicle (MJ/l)
EFRF,i Emission factor of fossil fuel consumed by reference vehicle (tCO2/MJ)
DDi,y Annual average distance travelled by project vehicle (km/year)
NRF,i,y Number of reference vehicles in category i in year y
|Parameter & Description||Source / Monitoring method/item|
|DDi,y :Annual average distance travelled by project vehicle category i in the year y (km/year)||Monthly distances travelled of sample vehicles for each vehicle category are monitored every month and the average value is applied as the average monthly distance travelled by the vehicle category. Sample vehicle is selected under 90% confidence interval and +/- 10% error margin.|
|SECPJ,i,y,:Specific electricity consumption by project vehicle category i per km in year y in urban conditions (kWh/km)||Monthly electricity consumptions of sample vehicles for each vehicle category are monitored every month and the average value is applied as the average monthly electricity consumption by vehicle category. The average annual electricity consumption by vehicle category is calculated as the weighted average in distance travelled. The monthly electricity consumption is calculated from the record of monthly operation report.|
|Result of Monitoring||
|V.category||Drive distance(km/y)||Reference FC(km/l)||Project EC(kwh/km)|
|GHG Emission Reductions|| Unit: tonCO2/year
|Year||Reference emissions||Project Emissions||Emission Reductions|
|Environmental Impacts||There is no environmental impact of special. Need support for the introduction of battery recycling system.|
|Promotion of Japanese Technologies||Low-speed electric vehicles (LSEV) is produced and sold on a small scale for the domestic market in each country. Made in China LSEV is introduced to Lao, but since there are no after-sales service selling out of the vehicle, it will not be used with the battery life. Japanese EV technology have a market advantage since it involve not only vehicle selling but also infrastructure for EV and development of personnel resources. The introduction of the import license system of LSEV subject to a quality assurance and after-sales service is required.|
|Sustainable Development in Host Country||•The urban environment improvement by traffic noise reduction in particular for world heritage protected areas. |
·GDP increased by decreasing fossil fuel imports results foreign currency payment reduction and monetary stability.
・EV related job creation such as battery manufacturing and electric vehicle assembly.
|Development and Deployment of Similar Projects||The countries where CO2 emission factor of Electricity is small have high potential for CO2 emission reduction by EV introduction. Paraguay, Zambia, Nepal, Albania, Tajikistan, and Costa Rica are such a country. The country of importing much petroleum products and car ownership is relative low is suitable country for EV promotion as well as Laos.|