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Reports of JCM/BOCM Feasibility Studies: FY2012

Title of Study JCM/BOCM Feasibility Study
Introduction of Electronic Gate to International Trade Port to Improve Port-related Traffic Jam
FYFY 2012
Main Implementing EntityChuo Fukken Consultants Co., Ltd.
Study Partners[Thailand]
Port Authority of Thailand (PAT), Ministry of Transport (MOT), State Railway of Thailand (SRT), The Joint Graduate School of Energy & Environment
Japan Weather Association, Climate Consulting, LLC
Location of Project/ActivityThailand (Bangkok Port and its periphery)
Category of Project/ActivityTransport
Study Report

Note: Preliminary drafts of MRV Methodology and Calculation Sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM/BOCM.
Description of Project/ActivityThe Port Authority of Thailand (PAT), which is the administrator of Bangkok Port, plans to implement comprehensive environmental improvement measures at Bangkok Port, in order to reduce GHG emissions through short-, medium- and long-term measures in stages. At present, PAT is working on electronic conversion of gates as a part of their comprehensive environmental improvement measures. In this study, we developed the MRV methodology centering on the following two measures:
Measure 1: Electronic conversion of gates (introduction of E-gates)

Measure 2: Promotion of E-gate utilization

By electronic conversion of gates, the processing time at the gates will be reduced, thus eliminating traffic congestion caused by freight trucks waiting at gates for loading or unloading at Bangkok Port, and also reducing idling GHG emissions.
Eligibility CriteriaCondition 1:
Introduction of the project or activity in the boundary will improve traffic flow and reduce GHG emissions.

Condition 2:
Activities encouraging vehicles not to idle while stopped are not already carried out in the host country.

Condition 3:
[Only for Measure 1] E-gates will be newly introduced into the port.

Condition 4:
[Only for Measure 2] E-gates are already in use and there are no dedicated lanes for vehicles without an E-card.
Reference Scenario and Project/Activity Boundary1. Reference Scenario
    Measure 1: Electronic conversion of gates (introduction of E-gates)
    Measures to improve the efficiency of gate processing, such as E-gates, are not introduced at all gates until the end of the credit period.

    Measure 2: Promotion of E-gate utilization
    The situation in which only some companies use the introduced E-gates continues (small- to medium-sized transport companies continue to use paper document processing).
2. Project/Activity Boundary
    Vehicles passing through the gates of Bangkok Port (freight trucks and passenger cars) are covered. The geographical boundary is both the East and West gates.
Calculation Method OptionsOption 1: Using the "Queuing model"
Option 2: Monitoring (only when implementing the project/activity)

Option 1 is a simple method in which GHG emissions can be calculated by only monitoring the total number of vehicles going IN/OUT of the gates per day (by vehicle type). On the other hand, in option 2, the waiting time for each vehicle is monitored and the GHG emissions upon implementing the project/activity are calculated from the monitored values.
Default Values set in MethodologyThe results of automobile emissions measurements by the Pollution Control Department (PCD) are analyzed to calculate the idling CO2 emission coefficient as the default value.
Monitoring MethodThe following two monitoring methods were proposed. Based on the field study, Option 1 is favored in terms of overall management, measurement, data quality control, data aggregation and others.

Option 1
This method monitors only the total number of vehicles going IN/OUT of the gates per day (by vehicle type).

Option 2
This method monitors the waiting time for each vehicle. Front Observers and Rear Observers are assigned to monitor the arrival time of vehicles at the rear end, gate arrival time and gate departure time.
GHG Emissions and its ReductionsIf all gates become E-gates through implementation of "Measure 1: Introduction of E-gates" and "Measure 2: Promotion of E-gate utilization":
Implementation of project/activity
50.13 (tCO2/yr)
4.08 (tCO2/yr)
46.05 (tCO2/yr)
Method of VerificationIn the third-party verification using the MRV methodology developed in this study, the project-specific values, monitoring values and reduction in emissions resulting from them are considered. The verification requires the following as evidences:
1) Monitoring report,
2) information on the validity of the monitoring period,
3) information on screening of the monitoring results,
4) information on the method of applying the queuing model, and
5) information on calibration of the measuring instruments
Environmental ImpactsStudies on environmental impact (air pollution, noise, vibration and so forth) have been conducted around Bangkok Port, and environmental integrity is ensured by reflecting the evaluation results on project planning.
Financial PlanIt is common in Thailand to procure funds for projects through self-funding without assistance from the government; funding must be ensured through public funding or foreign capital funding. A Yen loan from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is assumed for the initial investment on E-gates (infrastructure establishment expenses, system development expenses, etc.).
Promotion of Japanese TechnologyAlthough the management of port gates is highly unique due to the systems, laws, customs and other reasons of the host country, Japanese manufacturers are capable of flexible development and handling according to the situation. The E-gate products manufactured in Japan are highly reliable with a 100% operation rate, and thus there is excellent potential for introducing Japanese technologies.
Sustainable Development in Host CountryIn addition to short-term measures for the traffic at the gates, by developing the basis of the MRV methodology for mid- to long-term measures regarding peripheral traffic and environmental measures, project implementation will progress smoothly in the future, contributing greatly to not only the reduction in GHG emissions but also the sustainable development of the host country by eliminating traffic congestion around Bangkok Port and improving the air environment.

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