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Reports of JCM/BOCM Feasibility Studies: FY2012

Title of Study JCM/BOCM Feasibility Study
Introduction of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste, and Landfill Gas (LFG) Capture, Flaring and Utilisation
FYFY 2012
Main Implementing EntityEX Research Institute Ltd.
FS PartnersKokusai Kogyo Corporation Ltd.
Location of Project/ActivityLao PDR (Vientiane)
Category of Project/ActivityWaste Management
Study Report

Note: Preliminary drafts of MRV Methodology and Calculation Sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM/BOCM.
Description of Project/ActivityThis study aims at assessing the feasibility of two proposed projects in the waste management sector of Lao PDR with development of the MRV (Measurement, Reporting, verification) methodologies, which are user friendly for potential owners of the proposed projects on GHG emission reduction, based on the actual monitoring of key parameters for estimating the amount of GHGs emission in reference and project scenarios.

The proposed projects assessed in this study are:
  • Landfill Gas capture, flaring and/or energy utilization from final disposal landfills of municipal solid waste, and
  • Aerobic treatment of organic matters in municipal solid waste with mechanical biological treatment (MBT) technology.
Eligibility CriteriaThe study establishes 10 eligibility criteria for identifying the project activities to which the proposed MRV methodology can be applied.
Case 1The project activity targets the municipal solid waste which is currently disposed at the final disposal landfills.
Case 2The project activity does not store or treat the solid waste and product or any sub-products from the treatment process under anaerobic condition.
Case 3The project activity does not result in reduction of the amount recycled in the existing solid waste management system.
Case 4If the project activity generates electricity, the source of power generation of which the energy sources are substituted by the project activity can be clearly identifiable, e.g. specific power plants/facilities, grid electricity, etc.
Case 5If the project activity generates heat energy, the heat source (heat generation or plant) of which the energy sources are substituted by the project activity uses fossil fuels for heat generation.
Case 6If the project activity generates heat energy, it will be utilized without any transport of LFG or heat by vehicles.
Case 7The project activity does not use or transfer any facilities or equipment that are currently used for other activities.
Case 8In the case of landfill gas capture/collection and flaring or energy utilization, the existing landfill must be improved to be operated as the controlled landfill.
Case 9The project activity does not change the collection and transport of waste from the source to the final destination.
Case 10All the compost produced by the project is used as the soil cover at the landfill where the project activity is carried out.
Reference Scenario and Project/Activity Boundary(Reference scenario)
The reference scenario in relation to the proposed projects is defined as Shallow uncontrolled landfill of all the waste received at KM32 with no LFG capture as well as no aerobic treatment of organic matters in the waste, which is the current operation of landfill at KM32, the project location. The project boundaries are set for each proposed project as described in the table below respectively.

LFG capture, flaring and/or energy utilizationPhysical and geographical boundary of the project activity including the final disposal landfill where the LFG is captured as well as all other facilities to flare and/or utilize LFG for energy purpose.
The project boundary shall include the following sources of GHGs emissions.
  • Electricity consumption by the project activity
  • Fossil fuels consumption by the project activity
Aerobic treatment of organic matters in the municipal solid wastePhysical and geographical boundary of the project activity ranging from collection and haulage of waste, aerobic treatment, and utilization of produced compost. However, there will be no incremental emission of GHGs due to increased transport of waste or compost as far as the proposed project complies with the eligibility criteria 9 and 10. No leakage emission due to utilization or storage of compost under anaerobic condition as all the produced compost is utilized as cover soil for the landfill after its complete decomposition.
The project boundary shall include the following sources of GHGs emission.
  • Electricity and fossil fuels consumption by the project activity.
  • GHGs emission (CH4, N2O) during the compost process.
Calculation Method Options
Default Values set in MethodologyThe default values set in this methodology are as follows:
  • Grid emission factor
  • Emission factors of fossil fuels consumption (by types)
  • Methane correction factor (MCF) by types of landfill operations
  • Amount of waste disposed per year (fixed)
  • Amount of Waste by types (fixed)
Monitoring MethodMonitoring will be directly carried out by the project owner or may be contracted out to the relevant monitoring body. The required monitoring items in the case of using default values set in this MRV methodology are as follows:

LFG capture, flaring and/or energy utilization
Monitoring item
Monitoring method
Frequency
Amount of methane in LFG flared and/or used for energy purpose by the project activity (tonCH4/yr)Gas flow meter
Methane meter
Continuously
Amount of electricity substituted by LFG-based power generation (MWh/yr)Electricity meter
Electricity bill
Monthly
Amount of heat substituted by LFG-based heat production (TJ)Flow meter
Calorimeter
Continuously
Electricity consumption by the project activity
(MWh)
Electricity meter
Electricity bill
Monthly
Fossil fuels consumption by the project activity (TJ or volume or mass)Fuel purchase receipt
Calorimeter
Monthly

Aerobic treatment of organic matters in the municipal solid waste
Monitoring item
Monitoring method
Frequency
Electricity consumption by the project activity (MWh)Electricity meterMonthly
Fossil fuels consumption by the project activity (TJ or volume or mass)Fuel purchase receipt
Calorimeter
Monthly
GHG Emissions and its Reductions<Prerequisite for estimating GHGs emission reduction by the project activities>
Amount of waste disposal195 tons/day
Composition of waste disposedFood waste 34%
Wood waste and park/garden waste 30%
Papers 7%
Textiles 5%
Others (Inorganic waste) 24%
Methane Correction Factor (MCF)Shallow uncontrolled landfill 0.4
Deep uncontrolled landfill 0.8
Capture ratio of LFG30%
GHGs emission during the process of aerobic treatment of organic waste0.002tonCH4/ton of waste composted
0.0002tonN2O/ton of waste composted

<Estimation results>
LFG capture, flaring and/or energy utilization
Option of reference scenarioEstimated GHGs reduction
(1) Shallow uncontrolled landfill3,400tCO2/yr
(2) Deep uncontrolled landfill7,000tCO2/yr

Aerobic treatment of organic matters in the municipal solid waste
Option of reference scenarioEstimated GHGs reduction
(1) Shallow uncontrolled landfill5,714tCO2/yr
(2) Deep uncontrolled landfill17,040tCO2/yr
Method of VerificationNo Suitable third party verifier is yet identified. The National Authority of Science and Technology (NAST) of Lao PDR may have potential capacity to conduct verification with considerable experience in standardized monitoring activities and calibration of monitoring equipment.
Environmental ImpactsPotentially negative environmental impacts of the proposed project activities and response measures are as follows.
Proposed Projects
Potentially negative environmental impacts and response measures
LFG capture, flare and/or energy utilization(Environmental impact)
  • Air pollutant emission by LFG flaring
(Response measures)
  • Minimizing sir pollutant emission by proper flaring management and encapsulation of flaring process with enough retention time of LFG for its complete combustion.
Aerobic treatment of organic matters in the municipal solid waste(Environmental impact)
  • Generation of offensive odor by aerobic treatment of organic waste.
(Response measures)
  • Preventing dispersion of offensive odor by encapsulation of aerobic treatment facility or deodorization of the facility.
Financial Plan<Estimated CAPEX and OPEX of the proposed projects>
Proposed projects
Project Cost
LFG capture, flare and/or energy utilizationCAPEX
US$ 5,000,000.-
OPEX
US$ 240,000.-/yr
Aerobic treatment of organic matters in the municipal solid wasteCAPEX
US$ 3,300,000.-
OPEX
US$ 70,000.-/yr
Promotion of Japanese TechnologyJapanese accumulated know-how of improved controlled landfill operation is expected to be transferred with the implementation of the proposed projects.
Sustainable Development in Host CountryThe Vientiane Environment Action Plan defines climate change and waste management as the priority sectors of environment. "Mitigation of human activities that influences global warming" is defined as a target of climate change actions while "Sanitary landfill operation at final disposal site" and "Waste minimization through 3R activities" are defined as the priority targets of actions in waste management sector. In this respect, the current study is fully compatible with the current policy of climate change and waste management in Vientiane Capital.

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