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Reports of New Mechanisms Feasibility Studies: FY2011

Title of Feasibility Study (FS)New Mechanism Feasibility Study for Energy Saving by Reducing Water Consumptions through Diffusion of Water-Saving Toilet Systems to Households in Dalian, China
FYFY 2011
Main Implementing EntityMitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities Co., Ltd.
FS PartnersTOTO Ltd. (TOTO)
Water Supply and Sewerage Association of Kitakyushu 
Kitakyushu City and Kitakyushu International Techno-cooperative Association (KITA)
Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (GIEC)
Location of Project ActivityChina
Category of Project ActivityEnergy Efficiency
Summary of FS ReportPDF (453KB)
Description of Project/ ActivityAs water scarcity have become commonplace worldwide, global efforts for its conservation are activating. China is not an exception and its government is continuously working on this issue. In 2010, the Chinese government stipulated new recommended water volumes for toilet flushing (5 liters for large flush and 3.5 liters for small flush) with the aim of enhancing the diffusion of water-efficient toilets.  Introduction of water-efficient toilets leads to a reduction of electricity and fuel consumption for the operation of water/wastewater systems, and thus contributes to the reduction of GHG emissions. In this study, the city of Dalian is selected as a case study target and the water-saving effects of introducing super-water-efficient toilets in general households are discussed. The super-water-efficient toilets considered in this study are newly developed by TOTO and have a design flush volume of 3.8 liters for large and 3 liters for small flush.
Reference Scenario and Project/ Activity BoundaryReference scenario is set at 5 liters for large flush and 3.5 liters for small flush. While the average toilet flush volume in Dalian is found 6 liters or more for large flush and 3 liters or more for small flush, it is more conservative to set the reference scenario for this study at the recommended water volumes for toilet flush (5 liters for large flush and 3.5 liters for small flush) newly stipulated by the government of China.
Monitoring Methods and PlanNumber of installed super-water-efficient toilets is the only parameter requires monitoring. Actual usage of installed super-water-efficient toilet will be monitored using random sampling procedures.
GHG Emissions and ReductionsProjected GHG emissions reductions:
7.71 kg-CO2/year per target super-water-efficient toilet
15,622 t-CO2/year for entire city of Dalian
MRV System for GHG ReductionsMeasurement (M)
    Please refer to “Monitoring Methods and Plan”.

    Reporting will be conducted in two stages: a project plan document showing the plan of the project before implementation, and a project completion report detailing results of monitoring (measurement) and estimation of GHG emission reductions.

Verification (V)
    Verification will be conducted in two stages: Verification at the project planning stage and the verification after the project implementation. For verification before project implementation, the validity of the selected information documented in the project plan document shall be confirmed. The assesment should be kept simple to avoid unnecesary burden to the activity proponent. For verification after project implementaion, validity of the content in the project completion report will be evaluated. A general guidelines and rules for verification may be desired to be established for BOCM. It is suggested that certain degree of discretion is granted to the verifying entity in order to speed up the assessment process. Approaches adopted by Joint Implementation (JI) and/or ISO certification procss may serve as examples.
Analysis of Environmental, Socioeconomic and other Impacts (including Securement of Environmental Integrity)North Eastern region of China including Liaoyang (Dalian) are now facing serious water shortage. Introduction of super-water-efficient toilets will contribute not only to GHG emission reductions, but also to water resource conservation, as well as to energy efficiency improvement due to the reduced load to water/wastewater related facilities in the region .
Financial PlanningTo promote diffusion of super-water-efficient toilet, it is necessary to reduce the initial cost difference between the super-water-efficient toilet and the conventional toilet. With the revenue from water savings accounted, the price gap would be 1,640 yuan. Hypothetically assuming 30,000 toilets are installed every year from 2013 to 2020, it will result in 240,000 installed super-water-efficient toilets by the end of year 2020. If 340 yuan per toilet is covered by subsidy for the first 60,000 toilets (implemented in the first 2 years), for example, 250 million yen would be required as the subsidy. Part of the remaining price gap of 1,300 yuan may be deducted from the selling price of the super-water-efficient toilet as the cost of “visualization” of this product as carbon offset product.
Introduction of Japanese TechnologyFlush performance/power and water consumption are the major toilet evaluation criteria. Japanese toilet manufacturers produce the most advanced water-efficient toilets and have been recognized worldwide for its excellence of flush performance.
(i.e. Improvement of Local Environmental Problems)
The project will lead to water resource conservation by introducing super-water-efficient toilet in private households. The project also will lead to energy conservation by achieving reduced load to water supply/wastewater related facilities. Establishment of applicable co-benefit evaluation criteria, such as “preservation of natural resources” and “water supply/hygiene”, is currently underway.
Contribution to Sustainable Development in Host CountryBy diffusing the super-water-efficient toilets and reducing the water demand, the Project allows improvement of water use efficiency in China. Operation of wastewater treatment facilities in Dalian are reaching to the designed treatment capacity and have only little margin to spare. By diffusing the super-water-efficient toilets, discharge from toilets may be reduced and alleviate the burden on the sewage infrastructure. As a result, the project contributes to sustainable development in China.

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