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Reports of MRV Demonstration Studies: FY2012

Title of Study MRV Demonstration Study using a model project
Transport Modal Shift through Construction of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) System
FYFY 2012
Main Implementing EntityMRV DS Joint Venture of Japan Weather Association and Almec
Study PartnersOTP (Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning)
SRTET (SRT Electrified Train Co., Ltd)
Location of Project/ActivityThailand (Bangkok metropolitan region)
Category of Project/ActivityTransport
Study Report

Note: Preliminary drafts of MRV Methodology and Calculation Sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM/BOCM.
Description of Project/ActivityThis project and activities will establish MRT networks in Bangkok metropolitan region in Thailand, which is expected to lead to a modal shift and a reduction in traffic congestion on the roads, thus reducing GHG emissions and generating offset credits.
Eligibility Criteria
  • The project introduces a new urban MRT, including its extension.
  • The MRT is for passenger transport.
  • The MRT is a rail-based transport system.
  • There is a traditional transportation system along the MRT routes in the reference scenario.
  • Technology transfers and/or financial support from Japan and/or other developed countries are provided for the construction or operation of the MRT.
Reference Scenario and Project/Activity BoundaryReference scenario: The reference scenario shall be Business as Usual (BaU).
Boundary: The boundary for the effect of the passenger modal shift shall be the MRT line used for a trip from entry station to exit station by MRT passengers. It excludes access transportation from origin to station (access) and from station to destination (egress) such as ACM0016. The boundary for the effect of the change in vehicle speed shall be the roads affected by the establishment of the MRT line. This refers only to the roads running parallel on both sides of the MRT line.
Calculation Method OptionsCalculation option 1-1:
Passenger modal shift (No interview survey required)
    Simplified method in which reference emissions are calculated without conducting a survey of MRT passengers (conservative mode of transportation in reference scenario is set.)

Calculation option 1-2:
Passenger modal shift (Interview survey required)
    A method in which a questionnaire is given to MRT passengers and reference emissions are calculated based on actual conditions. It is presented in conjunction with the conservative option of reducing the number of samples in the riders' questionnaire.

Calculation option 2:
Change in vehicle speed
    :A method in which reference emissions are calculated by conducting a survey on the traffic count/travel speed on specific roads in the vicinity.
Default Values set in MethodologyA default factor was examined for the "share of passengers using the transport mode in the reference scenario" and the "CO2 emissions factor per passenger kilometer for transport mode i." In calculation option 1-1, the share of passengers for the most conservative transport mode in terms of CO2 emissions per passenger kilometer (for example, buses) shall be set at 100% in calculating the share of passengers using the transport mode in the reference scenario; the default factor shall not be set in the calculation option 1-2.
The default factor used for the CO2 emission factor per passenger kilometer for transport mode i shall be the lower of the literature data presented in the MRV methodology in both calculation option 1-1 and 1-2.
Monitoring MethodUsing the simplest calculation, the MRT operator will monitor within the scope of regular operations.
Monitoring method
MRT traffic volume
(passenger km/yr)
Aggregate data provided by MRT operator
Number of MRT passengers
Aggregate data provided by MRT operator
Average distance traveled by MRT passenger
Data provided by MRT operator
Electricity consumption associated with MRT operations
Aggregate data provided by MRT operator
Result of Monitoring ActivityMonitoring activities were carried out as follows in August 2012.
Questionnaire: More than 6,000 questionnaires were collected in an interview survey of passengers using the City Line on the ARL Station platform and premises.
Traffic count survey: A survey was carried out in 20 locations near ARL.
Vehicle travel speed survey: Vehicles equipped with GPS drove on roads running parallel to the north and south of ARL and obtained data.
Occupancy rate survey: The occupancy rate for passenger cars, two-wheeled vehicles, taxis and buses was surveyed in the section of the blue line that is to be extended in order to ascertain the occupancy rate in the absence of MRT.
GHG Emissions and its ReductionsEmissions reductions on the ARL's City Line were calculated using each calculation option.
Calculation option 1-1
Calculation option 1-2
Calculation option 2
Project emissions
Reference emissions
Reduction in emissions
Method and Result of VerificationThe third-party verification covered the emissions reductions calculated based on data provided by SRTET and monitoring data. The inspection organization made observations about the traceability of the data, among other issues. SRTET is not managing the data on emissions reductions that could be used for credits, which is an issue to address going forward.
Environmental ImpactsThis project is a priority project to achieve the GHG emission reduction targets in the transportation sector. Moreover, appropriate environmental impact assessments were carried out since the project fell under the remit of Thailand’s environmental impact assessment program; this assessment determined that there would be no negative impact on the environment.
Promotion of Japanese TechnologyTechnology manufactured in Japan has the edge in areas on the software side as well as the infrastructure side. Japan's expertise is expected to be utilized in designing measures to improve the bus route for better access to the railway station, redevelop the front of the station, including the construction of a plaza in front of the station, enable joint use via Sony's FeliCa system, and address climatic disasters such as the 2011 flood.
Sustainable Development in Host CountryNOx reductions as follows can be expected through ARL operations, estimated from monitoring results.
Reference emissions
Project emissions
Reduction in emissions

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