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Reports of MRV Demonstration Studies: FY2012

Title of Study MRV Demonstration Study using a model project
Biomass-based Thermal Energy Generation to Displace Fossil Fuels
FYFY 2012
Main Implementing EntityEX Research Institute Ltd.
Study PartnersSri Lankan Carbon Fund, Sri Lankan Standard Institution, MAPA LALAN (PVT) Limited, Sri Lankan Sustainable Energy Authority, Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Hokuden Sogo Sekkei, Fuji Engineering Consulting,
Location of Project/ActivitySri Lanka
Category of Project/ActivityBiomass Utilisation
Study Report

Note: Preliminary drafts of MRV Methodology and Calculation Sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM/BOCM.
Description of Project/ActivityThrough promoting use of biomass fuel as a source of industrial heat/power or for producing/generating grid power based on the Joint Crediting Mechanism / Bilateral Offset Credit Mechanism (JCM/BOCM). The project activity will substitute currently used fossil fuels and contribute to the promotion of sustainable development in Sri Lanka and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Eligibility Criteria<Criteria 1>
Fossil fuel use shall be replaced by biomass resources used for power generation and / or thermal energy generation.
<Criteria 2>
The amount of power and / or thermal energy substituted by the project activity shall be measurable.
<Criteria 3>
The biomass used in the project complies with guidelines established by the Government of Sri Lanka.
<Criteria 4>
The technology, equipment and facilities introduced in the project are not common in the host country; moreover, the project entails introduction of biomass using equipment possessing more than a certain plant capacity.
<Criteria 5>
The projects shall be implemented voluntarily by the project owners but not implemented based on legislation or regulations in the host country.
<Criteria 6>
The project conforms to standards and regulations in the host country.
Reference Scenario and Project/Activity BoundaryIn the case of thermal utilization, industry in Sri Lanka was divided into three categories according to energy source and the reference scenario was set according to each category as follows: Category 1 as "Biomass utilization" and Category 2 and 3 as "Continued use of fossil fuels in existing and new equipment that utilize thermal energy." The reference scenario here is BaU, however, in consideration of the applicability of high-efficiency technology in fossil fuel-utilizing equipment, the most conservative figure of 100% is adopted as efficiency of fossil fuel-utilizing equipment in the reference scenario.

Concerning grid power, the BaU is power generation based on the Long-term Expansion Plan for power that as a rule is published every year. In the latest expansion plan (2009-2022), coal-fired power generation is more or less the only type incorporated into the future electric power planning. However, from the viewpoint of conservativeness, the official emission coefficient issued by the Sri Lankan DNA has been adopted as the reference scenario emission coefficient.

The project boundary shall be the physical and geographical boundary of the project site including the power generating and thermal energy generating equipment to be introduced in the project.
Calculation Method OptionsTwo methods are set: one entails quantification based on measurement from the input side, and the other entails quantification based on measurement from the output side. Options have been set upon combining use of default values, project-specific values and monitored values under each approach.
Default Values set in MethodologyIn addition to utilization of default values recognized under the CDM, default values concerning emissions arising from biomass cultivation and procurement, specific values, and default values concerning the heating value of used biomass, etc. have been set based on sampling, statistical information and theoretical values, etc.
Monitoring MethodThe following three types of monitoring activities were conducted regarding the monitoring items related to heat generation.

<Monitoring (manual) from the output side>
Manual recording of boiler-related items (steam pressure, flow rate, water temperature) at hourly intervals

<Monitoring (automatic) from the output side>
Automatic recording by data logger of boiler-related items (steam pressure, flow rate, water temperature) at minutely intervals

<Monitoring from the input side>
The amount of inserted biomass was manually recorded each time biomass was inserted, while monitoring items related to biomass transportation were manually recorded on each journey.
Result of Monitoring Activity<Monitoring period>
October 22, 2012 - January 15, 2013 (86 days)

<Monitoring results>
As a result of monitoring and observing the parameters required to conduct calculation using the method from the input side (amount of inserted biomass) and the method from the output side (generated amount of heat) in the MRV methodology, the reference emissions of the calculation method which was considered as most accurate was the largest amount. The degree of impact on the reduction of emissions of each parameter was as follows:
    <Output> The amount of biomass and biomass water content have major impact.

    <Input> The amount of steam has major impact and the boiler water temperature (inlet) and steam pressure has major impact have minor impact.
GHG Emissions and its ReductionsThe following emission reductions (unit: tCO2/yr) were obtained in the calculation options targeted in this demonstration.

<Output> Default value: 2,852, specific value: 4,161

<Input> Default value: 1,963, specific value: 2,645
Method and Result of VerificationTogether with the Japan Quality Assurance Organization, we implemented capacity building for SLSI (the verification agency in Sri Lanka) and the project participants three times. In February, following completion of the monitoring activity, verification work including desk review and on-site assessment was jointly carried out.
Environmental ImpactsConcerning the impact regarding biomass utilization, the MRV methodology only targets biomass that complies with the national guideline (the biomass is guaranteed not to exert an impact on the environment). Moreover, in the event where the project activity complies with the EIA implementation criteria, EIA will be implemented to ensure that environmental integrity is secured.
Promotion of Japanese TechnologyTechnologies having high feasibility for introduction to Sri Lanka were identified, and the measures for introducing them were examined. As a result, there were found to be high needs for Japanese high-quality technologies such as pretreatment methods like chipping and pelletizing and cogeneration systems for improving efficiency. However, since Japanese technologies are expensive and have no retail base established in Sri Lanka, it is hoped that prices can be reduced through conducting technology transfer and realizing local production and that the JCM/BOCM finance mechanism can be utilized.
Sustainable Development in Host CountryImplementation of the project is expected to make a contribution to sustainable development as follows:
1) Reduction of air polluting emissions (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides) through substitution of fossil fuels,
2) Economic effect on the biomass supply area (creation of new income source and employment opportunities),
3) Rectification of regional economic disparities, and
4) Greenification and prevention of land degradation through increased plantation of trees for producing woody biomass.

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