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Reports of MRV Demonstration Studies: FY2012

Title of Study MRV Demonstration Study using a model project
Biomass Boiler Heating using Agricultural Waste as Fuel
FYFY 2012
Main Implementing EntityJoint Venture of Mitsui Consultants and Japan Environmental Consultants
Study PartnersCarbon Finance Unit (CFU) of Ministry of Environment of Moldova, Japan Weather Association (JWA)
Location of Project/ActivityMoldova
Category of Project/ActivityBiomass Utilization
Study Report

Note: Preliminary drafts of MRV Methodology and Calculation Sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM/BOCM.
Description of Project/ActivityMany communities in poor rural and agricultural regions are experiencing difficulty securing a source of heating in the winter season due to the rising price of fossil fuels in Moldova. To respond this problem, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have begun a program to assist these communities in switching from fossil fuels such as coal to biomass fuel in Moldova. Straw-fired boilers funded by the Grant Aid for Grass-roots Human Security Project program of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the World Bank (WB) and pellet boilers funded by Moldova Social Investment Fund (MSIF) were selected as target facilities for this study. Green House Gas (GHG) emissions will be reduced by switching from fossil fuels such as coal to biomass fuel.
Eligibility Criteria[Criteria 1]
Fossil fuel used for boilers shall be replaced by biomass residues.

[Criteria 2]
The project activity involves installation of (a) new boiler(s) to make energy use of biomass residue including biomass pellet for heat generation whose capacity is larger than 45 kW and energy efficiency is higher than 80%.

[Criteria 3]
The biomass residue would otherwise be unutilized without the project activity.

[Criteria 4]
The heat generated in the boiler would not be used for power generation.
Reference Scenario and Project/Activity BoundaryIdentified alternative scenario regarding how to handle generated heat and biomass residue and established the most appropriate reference scenario by barrier analysis.
・ Without the project, existing boilers would continue to operate using the same fossil fuels.
・ Without the project, biomass residue would be thrown away or left in a farm field to decompose under aerobic conditions or burned without management and not utilized for energy.
Project boundaries are as follows.
・ GHG emissions related to operation of agricultural machinery to collect, bale, and transport biomass residue used for the project.
・ GHG emissions related to the transportation of biomass burned in a boiler.
・ GHG emissions related to the operation of a pelletizing system (crushing, drying, pelletizing)
・ GHG emissions related to use of electricity or consumption of fossil fuel at the project site – e.g. use of a tractor to place biomass residue into a boiler, or a shredder for biomass residue. However, fossil fuels mixed with biomass is not included.
Calculation Method OptionsFour different calculation methods were prepared as follows.

1-1: Use heat meter to estimate reference emission. Use default values for emissions related to transportation process etc.
1-2: Use heat meter to estimate reference emission. Use project specific value for emission related to transportation process etc.
2-1: NOT use heat meter to estimate reference emission. Use default values for emission related to transportation process etc.
2-2: NOT use heat meter to estimate reference emission. Use project specific value for emission related to transportation process etc.
Default Values set in Methodology[Default values]
  • CO2 emission factor for fossil fuel
    Coal (Anthracite): 0.0983 tCO2/GJ
    Diesel Oil: 0.0741 tCO2/GJ
    Source: Implied CO2 emission factors has been deduced from the National Inventory Report of the Republic of Moldova (information from Climate Change office, Ministry of Environment of Moldova)
  • CO2 emission factor for diesel trucks
    0.0011 tCO2/km
    Source: Diesel HGV Road Freight Conversion Factors, 2011 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting, Department of Energy and Climate change, UK
  • Net calorific value of diesel
    35.7 GJ/kl
    Source: Based on "Instruction for compiling Statistical Report No.1-BE "Energy Balance", approved through Order No. 88 from 3 October 2012"
  • Boiler efficiency under the reference scenario
    1.0 to ensure conservativeness
    Source: Based on this study
  • Moisture content of biomass residue
    Biomass pellet: 11%
    Straw (Indoor storage, Covered storage): 20%
    Straw (Open field storage): 30%
    Fuel wood: 40%
    Source: Based on this study
  • Project emission factor
    Non-processed biomass residue: 0.02
    Biomass pellet: 0.10
    Source: Based on this study
  • Net calorific value of biomass residue (GJ/t)
    Wheat straw: 18.04
    Soya straw: 18.04
    Corn: 17.95
    Sunflower shell: 20.02
    Reed: 17.60
    Wood (elm): 19.10
    Wood (acasia): 20.11
    Vine: 18.92
    Wood (pine): 19.99
    Wood (poplar): 19.18
    Wood (wicker): 19.18
    Weeping willow: 18.94
    Furniture fabrication residues: 18.92
    Source: Measured in this study and "Report regarding the scientific and innovational activity, based on the contract "Assessment of calorific value of lignocelluloses biomass collected from different climatic zones of the Republic of Moldova""

[Project specific value]
  • Grid electricity CO2 emission factor
    0.4434 tCO2/MWh
    Source: Moldova 2010 Grid Emission Factor Calculation
  • Boiler efficiencies
    Existing boiler (values were provided by CFU)
    0.92 (natural gas)

    Straw boiler (based on manufacturer catalog)
    0.81 (Hirtopul Mare G*)
    0.80 (Hirtopul Mare K*)
    0.815 (Viisoara G., Chiscareni L)

    Biomass pellet boiler (based on manufacturer catalog)
    0.86 (Moldagrotechnica, Fundurii Vechi Comminity Center and Balatina Community Center)
    [*G=Gymnasium, K=Kindergarten, L=Lyceum]
    Taking into account of variations in boiler efficiency caused by the operational variation of boilers, we adopted 0.5 as the correction factor of boiler efficiency and multiplied the boiler efficiency by the factor.
Monitoring MethodCumulative heat generated by a boiler (QBM,y)[GJ/yr]: Measured continuously via heat meter.
Weight of biomass residue inputs (PCBM,y)[t/yr]: Count straw bales or pellet buckets fed into boiler after determining average bale weight or bucket weight of pellets.
Result of Monitoring ActivityThe monitoring period is divided into two periods. During the first monitoring period, outside temperature was higher than usual. For this reason, there were sites where boilers was operated only intermittently.
First Monitoring Period
・Hirtopul Mare Gymnasium: November 27 - November 30, 2012
・Hirtopul Mare Kindergarten: November 7 - November 30, 2012
・Viisoara Gymnasium: November 14 - November 30, 2012
・Chiscareni Lyceum & Gymnasium: November 14 - November 29, 2012
・Moldagrotehnica: November 8 - November 30, 2012
Second Monitoring Period
・Hirtopul Mare Gymnasium: December 1, 2012 – January 23, 2013
・Hirtopul Mare Kindergarten: December 1, 2012 – January 23, 2013
・Viisoara Gymnasium: December 1, 2012 – January 23, 2013
・Chiscareni Lyceum: December 1, 2012 – January 23, 2013
・Moldagrotehnica: December 1, 2012 – January 23, 2013
・Fundurii Vechi Multifinctional Community Center: January 7 – January 23, 2013
・Balatina Multifinctional Community Center: January 14 – January 23, 2013
GHG Emissions and its ReductionsEmission reductions based on second monitoring period data (unit: tCO2)
 Hirtopul Mare Kindergarten
RE (2)
PE (2)
ER (2)
[RE=Reference Emissions, PE=Project Emission, ER=Emission Reductions]
(2): Second monitoring period (54 days)
Yearly value: calculated by set the boiler annual operation date as 160 days.
Method and Result of VerificationWe entrusted the verification of the monitoring results to East-Europe Consulting Associates (EECA) and Rina Simtex Organismul de Certificare (Rina). As EECA had no experience of CDM related project, the outputs were not sufficient. On the other hand, Rina has experience enough to do the verification. Verifiers had commented on the monitoring reports prepared by CFU and all of them were solved with evidences provided by CFU.
Environmental Impacts<Smoke Particulate Matter >
Due consideration must be given to straw boiler smoke stack height and selection of boiler sites because there is a possibility that the concentration of smoke/particulate matter may exceed European Union (EU) standards. In the case of pellet boilers, environmental impact is minimum due to the provision of a dust collector.

Boiler ash is to be utilized as fertilizer in farm fields.
Promotion of Japanese TechnologyEstablishment of a long-term fuel supply chain and maintenance service system will work to promote Japanese technologies. The supply chain and service system are both assisted and funded by JICA's Grant Aid project due to superiority of Japanese pellet boiler technology.
Sustainable Development in Host Country
  • Effective use of unutilized domestic resources
  • Creation of new industry
  • Job creation
  • Positive economic impact of domestic investment as outbound currency flows are reduced

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