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Reports of MRV Demonstration Studies: FY2012

Title of Study MRV Demonstration Study using a model project
Transportation Improvement through introduction of Efficient Buses and Provision of Good Services
FYFY 2012
Main Implementing EntityKatahira & Engineers International
Study PartnersMitsubishi UFJ Morgan Stanley Securities
Fukken Co., Ltd.
Location of Project/ActivityLao PDR (Center of Vientiane Capital)
Category of Project/ActivityTransport
Study Report

Note: Preliminary drafts of MRV Methodology and Calculation Sheet are the result of the study. They have neither been officially approved, nor are guaranteed to be officially approved under the JCM/BOCM.
Description of Project/ActivityIntroduction of new public bus vehicles and replacement
Strengthening of the quality and the quantity of bus services
Eligibility Criteria"Category of project" and "possibility of measurement" are provided as eligibility criteria.
Reference Scenario and Project/Activity BoundaryReference Scenario
"No implementation of the project" (existing bus vehicles are operated continuously) is defined as reference scenario.

Geological boundary
Bus routes where the project buses are operated
Fuel depot and workshop where buses stop for
Emission derived from some types of transport in a project area
Calculation Method OptionsImprovement of fuel efficiency
Method 1: fuel consumption is monitored continuously.
Method 2: fuel efficiency (L/km) is sampled.

Improvement of bus services: modal shift
Method 1: simple method with bus operation records
Method 2: moderate method with small survey
Method 3: detailed method with traffic demand forecast

Default Values set in MethodologyEmission factors per fuel consumption
-Official values of IPCC

Emission factors per drive distance
-Values measured by Thailand
Monitoring MethodImprovement of fuel efficiency
Operation distance of project bus, fuel efficiency

Improvement of bus services: modal shift
The number of bus passengers, the average of transport distance of bus passengers, others
Vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT)
Result of Monitoring ActivityThe project owner measures bus operation data (operating distance, fuel consumption) in his routine work. Regarding the number of the passengers of the project bus and the average travel distance of the project bus passengers, the study entity calculated these data from the fare incomes and survey data. Regarding other parameters, existing materials and published statistics was referred. The traffic demand forecast which calculates VKT was implemented by the partner in Japan.
GHG Emissions and its ReductionsImprovement of fuel efficiency

Improvement of bus services: modal shift
Method1: 267tCO2/yr
Method2: 361tCO2/yr
Method and Result of VerificationConsidering neutrality and specialty, the study entity requested the National University of Laos to implement verification work. Because they have no experience of CDM or JCM/BOCM, the study entity assigned the following: comprehension for verification work, inspection of the description on calculation sheets of the monitoring report, preparation of verification report, others.
The verification team implemented the verification work focusing the accuracy of data and prepared a verification report.
Engineering faculty, the National University of Laos has the technical knowledge on traffic engineering, but little knowledge and no experience of CDM and JCM/BOCM. If verification work is done continuously in the host country in future, the teamwork of a DOE and a technical body is recommended. It is recommended that the capacity development for a third party entity or a specialist of CDM and JCM/BOCM is implemented soon in the host country.
Environmental ImpactsThe project and activity has been positioned in environmental measures. Therefore it is expected that the project and activity will hardly impact the environment. The increase of the bus vehicles is very small compared with the present traffic. (60/50,000car/day)
Promotion of Japanese TechnologyThe bus vehicles, which were introduced on the project, are made in Japan. These bus vehicles do not always apply the latest technologies of Japan. However the host country really appropriates the bus vehicles made in Japan on quality and maintenance cost. With this advantage, it is expected to promote both sides of hardware and software such as a technical cooperation.
Sustainable Development in Host CountryThe project and activity, which is a project under the upper plan of the host country on the transport sector, is expected to contribute the followings: the increasing of economic utilization, the securement of road safety, the environmental conservation of urban and roadside in the host country. A public bus project is low cost compared with other large scale transport. It is appropriated to be the initial stage to shift to large-scale transport.

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