Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies: FY2005
|Title of the research||Feasibility Study on Effective Using of Methane Gas at the Waste Water Treatment Plant in Kiev, Ukraine|
|Main research orgnisation||Shimizu Corporation|
|Location of the project||Ukraine (Kiev City)|
|Summary of the research report (PDF)|
|Description of the project||Kiev is the capital city of Ukraine. Sewage in the city is treated at Bortnichi Water Treatment Plant operated by the company “Kievvodokanal,” which is owned by the city. This treatment plant currently treats wastewater of 1,300,000 m3/day and discharges treated effluent into Dnepr River. |
Large quantities of sludge are generated in line with wastewater treatment at Bortnichi Water Treatment Plant. This sludge consists of raw sediments discharged from primary settlement tanks, and surplus sludge (surplus of activated sludge) that is propagated in the aeration tanks and is discharged from the secondary settlement tanks.
Some of the raw sediments are treated in the existing closed anaerobic digester, whereas all the surplus sludge (including raw sediments not treated in the closed anaerobic digester) is decomposed by oxidation in an aerobic stabilizer. The treated sludge is then pumped to a sludge field that covers an area of 272 ha.
The inherent purpose of the sludge field is to dry out the sludge. Usually, sludge is removed from the sludge field when the water content of sludge reaches 70~80%, however, in reality the sludge is left as it is in the field. The reason for this is because Ukraine currently does not possess the technology to effectively utilize sludge as organic fertilizer, etc., i.e. composting technology, nor the social institutions for doing this.
As a result, sludge in the sludge field is left to ferment in the field, thereby generating odor. The fermentation process in the sludge field specifically consists of an aerobic reaction on the sludge field surface and an anaerobic reaction below the surface, and these reactions result in the generation of CH4, which has an adverse impact in contributing to global warming.
The project aims to install a new closed anaerobic digester with a view to treating all the sludge that cannot currently be handled by the existing closed anaerobic digester, and thereby reducing the volume of sludge transported to the sludge field. At the same time, the project proposes to utilize CH4 (digestion gas/bio gas) generated in digestion as fuel in a cogeneration system.
|Sector of the project||Waste Management|
|Duration of the project activity/ crediting period||2007 - 2023 / 2009 - 2023|
|Baseline methodology/additionality||At this moment, there is no appropriate baseline methodology that can be applied to this project. So, we proposed a new baseline methodology. In this new baseline methodology, the baseline scenario can be specified by barrier analysis and investment analysis of all the plausible scenarios. Additionality can be demonstrated by showing that the project emission is smaller than baseline emission.|
Baseline emission and project emission can be calculated by applying the emission factor of the input sludge of the anaerobic closed digester and the output sludge of the anaerobic closed digester that was got by testing. This enables to calculate the emissions that reflect site specific emission factor.
|Estimation of GHG emissions||Calculated emission reduction is 1.56*105-1.43*105t-CO2/year|
|Monitoring methodology||At this moment, there is no appropriate monitoring methodology that can be applied to this project. So, we proposed a new monitoring methodology. In this new monitoring methodology, mass of the input sludge of the anaerobic closed digester and the output sludge of the anaerobic closed digester is monitored. And by multiplying each of them by the respective emission factor of the sludge that was got by testing., baseline emission and project emission can be calculated.|
|Environmental impact||The project will have no negative impacts on the environment.|
|Issues and tasks for project implementation||It is scheduled to advance the project with a view to operation from January 2009, when ERUs can be acquired.|
Now that the Kyoto Protocol has come into effect, it is certain that the project will generate the required ERUs providing that, 1) the amount of CH4 gas generated in the sludge field is clarified in advance and 2) digestion gas from the digester is generated, recovered and utilized as forecast. For this reason, the project is deemed to be well worth implementing as a JI project.
However, the following risks still remain and will need to be carefully monitored when it comes to implementing the project in future.
(1) Risk concerning the generated amount of CH4 gas in the sludge field
(2) Risk concerning the partners
(3) Risk concerning works
(4) Risk concerning project approval by Ukraine
(5) Risk concerning the JI participation qualifications of Ukraine
(6) Risk concerning systems from the second commitment period onwards
In addition, this project is not a project that can generate much ERU by smaller investment cost such as landfill projects. So, we proposed that this project should be divided into two parts, that is to say, JI project part and public utility part, and the latter part should be invested by public funding. Kievvodokanal also has the perception that it is impossible to implement this project only by ERU income and power income. Then Kievvodokanal is trying to find the solution multilaterally such as applying increasing the sewerage tariff, getting Kiev City’s budget, or applying ODA. Ukraine Government as DNA said, “This project can be implemented by GIS.” It is the further concern how to get project funding.