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Reports of CDM/JI Feasibility Studies: FY2004

Title of the researchThe Project of Bio-Diesel Production from Sunflower, in Thailand
FYFY 2004
Main research organizationPowwow Pool Co., Ltd.
Research partner(s)University of Tsukuba, Sun Care Fuels Corporation, UTIC FOODS (THAILAND) Co., Ltd., Kasetsart University
Location of the projectLoei Province, Thailand
Summary of the research report (PDF)200415.pdf(4.9MB)
Description of the projectThis project aims to produce biodiesel (BDF) from sunflower oil in Loei province, Thailand. Sunflower as a source crop will be cultivated by contracted farmhouse in Phu Rua district, Midwestern of Loei. The unused land (22,500 ha) is utilized as farm land of Sunflower Plantation. The BDF production plant will be constructed in Loei city. The BDF production capacity of this plant will be 15,000 t/year. The produced BDF will be sold to contracted oil company, and supplied to the consumers in gas stations in big cities (e.g. Bangkok). The use of BDF as an alternative to petroleum diesel fuel should lead to lower petroleum diesel consumption and reduced CO2 emission.
GHGCO2
Sector of the projectBiomass Utilisation
CDM/JICDM
Duration of the project activity/ crediting period10years
Baseline methodology/additionalityBaseline Scenario
The baseline scenario is identified to continue current practice, because the following are applicable to this project.
<Applicability Conditions>
(a) Plantation of sunflower does not lead to decrease of forest, or the afforestation/reforestation activities;
(b) There are no other plans to utilize the area for other exclusive GHG emission reduction activities;
(c) The project is the optimal solution in its scale with considering several barriers;
(d) The project do not have any plans to implement other biomass based fuel production projects;
(e) The project plant cannot be attractive economically without the CER revenue;
(f) BDF shall be consumed as to displace petro-diesel.
These applicability conditions make no possibility of afforestation or bio fuel from other crops.

Additionality
The baseline scenario is not identical to the project scenario. It is obvious that the emission in the project scenario is less than those of baseline scenario. Therefore, the project is additional.

Estimation of GHG emissionsProvisional calculation of estimated amount of emission reductions is shown below.


year
BDF
[t/yr]
PEy
[tCO2eq/yr]
BEy
[tCO2eq/yr]
Ly
[tCO2eq/yr]
ERy
[tCO2eq/yr]
2008
12,000
8,894
38,310
2,432
27,074
2009
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
2010
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
2011
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
2012
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
2013
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
2014
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
2015
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
2016
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
2017
15,000
11,117
47,888
3,040
33,731
Total
147,000
108,947
469,302
29,792
330,653
average
14,700
10,895
46,930
2,979
33,065
Monitoring methodologyMonitoring Plan follows NMM. The letters B, P and L means the parameter for calculation of emission amount of baseline, project activity and leakage, respectively.
Sunflower Cultivation
P5. PEplantation_N2Oy: N2O emissions from fertilizer use at plantation site
P6. Fertilizeriny: fertilizer input to the plantation site
P7. UREA_EQin: urea equivalence factor of the fertilizer

BDF Production Plant
B1. BFy: BDF sold or utilized in a certain year (thermal content)
B2. BFvoly: volume content of BFy
B3. Densityy: mass density of BDF
B4. HVy: thermal content of BDF per unit of mass
B5. COEFFF: LCA CO2 equivalent emission factor of the petro-diesel
P1. FFBFPNG,y: natural gas consumption at BDF production plant
P2. COEFFFNG: CO2 emission factor of the natural gas
P3. BFmassy: BDF sold or utilized in a certain year (in mass)
L1. ELy: electricity consumed at the BDF production plant
L2. COEFELy: CO2 emission factor of the used electricity
L3. Lossy: transmission loss of the grid
L4. BE_N2Oy: N2O emissions substituted by bio-based fertilizer
L5. BioFertilizerouty: bio-based fertilizer sold out in the market
L6. UREA_EQout: coefficient to convert from bio-based fertilizer to synthetic urea fertilizer
L7. PEindirect_N2Oy: indirect N2O emissions from fertilizer use

Environmental impactEnvironmental Impacts
The sunflower plantation is to utilize unused land with improvement and maintenance of the farm field. Residue of oil mill and glycerol are used as fertilizer and a feedstock of chemical substance. Wastewater effluent from the plant is treated within the plant. Therefore, we see no negative impacts on environment. Furthermore, BDF not only reduces CO2 emissions, but also reduces other air pollutants, such as PM, PAH, SOx.

Indirect Impacts
The large-scale sunflower plantation in Loei is expected to raise farmers’ income. Because the flowers are also valuable tourist resources, it should have major economic effects. BDF production plant is expected to generate new industries and new employment.

Issues and tasks for project implementationBusiness scheme


Expectation and subjects for Business
The first stage of sunflower plantation will be started from this fall. The expanded area of the plantation will be not only in Loei but also in Khon Kaen area. With this plantation plan, the business development will be more definite and supply of materials for BDF production will be more real than before. In April, we are going to submit PDD and methodologies to CDM EB with support from JQA and Climate Experts Ltd. However, we still have to make some solution for lack of capital and human resource.
ValidationIn the desk review report for validation by JQA, 5 points of CAR and 7 points of CL are listed. The PDD and NMB&NMM were submitted to CDM EB. The assessment results by UNFCCC office said to be not-received for consideration of the Board and the Meth Panel. The modified version of PDD and methodologies would be re-submitted again.

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