|Title of the research||Feasibility Study on Power Generation Utilizing Biogas from Sewage Sludge and Organic Wastes in Kazakhstan|
|Main research organization||Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc|
|Research partner(s)||Ministry of Environmental Protection, Astana City, the Climate Change Coordination Center and others|
|Location of the project||Astana City, the Republic of Kazakhstan|
|Summary of the research report (PDF)|| (370kb)|
|Description of the project||This is a project to put organic wastes collected separately and sewage sludge produced at a sewage plant into the same fermenters to coferment, collect methane gas produced from the cofermentation and generate electricity using the gas in Astana City. |
The amount of gas to be produced in this project has been calculated on the assumption that the project system has the capacity to take in 60,130㎥/year of organic wastes(food wastes), which are acceptable to the cofermenters among all the general wastes transported to the landfill site, and the inflow of sewage water at the sewage plant is 136,000m3/day. As a result of the calculation, the amounts of gas to be produced from the organic wastes and the sewage sludge are 7,235Nm3/day and 11,125m3/day respectively. Daily average electricity production calculated with the gas generation is 30.07MWh and average output is 1.25MW.
Meanwhile, the yen-loan-financed project that includes the sewage plant in Astana City, "Astana Water Supply and Sewerage Project" (hereinafter referred to as the JBIC project) was provided in July 2003. Our project has adopted a grid and facilities that do not exert any huge impacts on the existing system on the premise of implementation of the JBIC project.
|GHG||CH4: LFG reductions at the landfill site by putting organic wastes, which would otherwise anaerobically ferment and release methane into the atmosphere at the site, into the anaerobic fermenters|
CO2: CO2 reductions by decreasing a part of the grid electricity through power generation utilizing methane gas produced from sewage sludge and organic wastes at the methane fermenters
|Sector of the project||Waste Management|
|Duration of the project activity/ crediting period||21years from November 2008|
|Baseline methodology/additionality||In this study, we had come up with 12 scenarios by combining several options on waste management and on sewage treatment in Astana City. As a result of examination on the scenarios taking legislation/ institution, technical barriers, investment barriers, environmental impacts, regional trend and market barriers into account, we have chosen the scenario in which "all wastes are collected together, then landfilled, with produced methane gas (hereinafter referred to as LFG) flared. Sewage sludge is anaerobically fermented with produced methane gas combusted at a boiler" as the baseline scenario. |
Meanwhile, the project scenario has been defined as the one in which "among all wastes, organic wastes collected through sorted collection or from factories are transported to the sewage plant, the organic wastes are put into anaerobic fermenters at the sewage plant with sewage sludge, and produced methane gas is utilized for power generation". This scenario is inferior to the baseline scenario in technical barriers and investment barriers, however, by carrying out the project as a JI project, we can overcome the technical barriers with technical guidance and lower the investment barriers through CO2 credits trading. Thus, the project scenario has additionality.
|Estimation of GHG emissions||GHG reductions ＝Baseline GHG emissions-（Project GHG emissions＋Leakage）|
Baseline GHG emissions＝67,200
Project GHG emissions＝-6,798
Leakage＝75（due to transportation）
|Monitoring methodology||Major planned monitoring items necessary for the project are as follows. |
|Inflow of sewage water||Generated output by Biogas|
|Concentration of Methane gas||Calorific value of Methane gas|
|The amount of organic wastes transported||Power source configuration of the grid|
|Consumption of each fuel||Generated output of the grid|
|CO2 emission coefficient of electricity||Legislations|
|The number of trucks for transport of organic wastes||The amount of LFG collected|
|Mileage of trucks||Calorific value of light oil|
|Environmental impact||As conceivable environmental impacts in this project, there are problems of noise or vibration by gas engines. Odor issues from organic wastes are also possible as the wastes are brought to the sewage plant.|
However, these environmental impacts can be fully diminished by taking simple countermeasures on the equipment.
|Issues and tasks for project implementation||We expect to carry out this project in the form of IPP through project financing. Given the rating of Kazakhstan by S&P, the environment for setting up project financing and carrying out a project can be said to have been in place in the nation to some extent. |
However, our financial analysis has found out that the project in Astana City would not be economically feasible enough even with revenues from credits taken into account and, thus, would be difficult to be realized. That is because the construction plan of a new landfill site with LFG flaring is currently underway in Astana City, which made us significantly change the baseline from the initial projection.
Meanwhile, the financial analysis has indicated a possibility that a similar project in other site would ensure profitability.
|Validation||The host country, the Republic of Kazakhstan, is scheduled to ratify the Kyoto Protocol as a JI country and is currently undertaking adjustments at home. A system has been gradually set up in the nation to accurately grasp its green house gas emissions. However, it cannot be denied that there is a possibility that the nation may ratify the Kyoto Protocol without the system firmly put in place. Therefore, this time we created PDD and asked Designated Operational Entity to verify it to go through the verification process called "Second Track" by third-party institutions similar to CDM Executive Board and Designated Operational Entity in the case of CDM. In this study, we submitted PDD to DOE (DNV) early in January and carried out JI determination. |
While pointing out some matters which should be confirmed at appropriate stages prior to implementation of the project, the DOE report has estimated GHG reductions in the First Commitment Period at 308,012t-CO2